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This page documents less straightforward bits of Pysa.

Obscure models#

When Pysa does not have enough information about a function or method, it will make basic assumptions about its behavior. This is referred to as an obscure model. Most notably, it assumes that the function or method propagates the taint from its arguments to its return value.

This usually happens when Pysa doesn't know about the callee of a function call:

def foo(f: Any):    x = input()    y = f(x) # no information about `f`, y will be considered tainted.    eval(y)

Functions and methods defined in type stubs or in a different language (for instance, in C or C++ binding) will also be treated as obscure models.

To prevent a function or method to be marked as obscure, one can use the @SkipObscure taint annotation in a .pysa file:

@SkipObscuredef ...

Tainting Specific kwargs#

Sometimes, a function can have potential sinks mixed together with benign parameters in the keyword arguments (kwargs) that it accepts. In these cases, tainting the whole kwargs variable will result in false positives when tainted data flows into a benign kwarg. Instead, for a function like this:

def eval_and_log(**kwargs):    eval(kwargs["eval"])    logging.debug(kwargs["log"])

We can lie a bit in our .pysa file, and break out the dangerous argument for tainting:

def eval_and_log(*, eval: TaintSink[RemoteCodeExecution], **kwargs): ...

This allows us to catch flows only into the eval keyword argument.

Instance attributes versus class attributes#

Models can specify sources and sinks on attributes, following the type annotation syntax:

django.http.request.HttpRequest.GET: TaintSource[UserControlled]

Any access to request.GET will be tainted when request is an instance of HttpRequest or any of its children. However, note that the access to the class attribute (i.e, HttpRequest.GET) won't be considered tainted.

To specify sources and sinks on class attributes, use the __class__ prefix:

django.http.request.HttpRequest.__class__.GET: TaintSource[UserControlled]

To specify a source on both the class attribute and instance attribute, simply use both lines.

Literal String Sources And Sinks#

Some security vulnerabilities are best captured by modeling strings of a given form flowing to dangerous functions, or format strings that match a pattern getting tainted data passed in.

To mark all literal strings matching a pattern as sources, you first need to add a regular expression corresponding to the pattern to your taint.config:

{  "sources": [    {      "name": "IPAddress"    }  ],  "implicit_sources": {     "literal_strings": [       {         "regexp": "\\d{1,3}(\\.\\d{1,3})+",         "kind": "IPAddress",         "description": "String that looks like an IP address."       }     ]  }}

With this regex in place, whenever Pysa sees a string such as 123.456.789.123, it will flag it as a taint source with the kind IPAddress.

def test() -> None:    ip_address = "123.456.789.123"    dont_pass_an_ip_address(ip_address) # Pysa will now flag this.

The converse of supporting literal strings as sinks is also supported, for data flowing into a tainted string. The syntax allows you to model data being used to format strings, like f-strings, manual string formatting, the string format() method, and printf-style string formatting with %.

Template strings and and manual string formatting with more than two subexpressions are not yet supported.

To add a literal sink, first add the literal_sink to your configuration

{  "sinks": [    { "name": "MayBeRendered" },    { "name": "MayBeSQL" }  ],  "implicit_sinks": {     "literal_strings": [       {         "regexp": "^<.*>$",         "kind": "MayBeRendered",         "description": "Indicates a string whose contents may be rendered."       },       {         "regexp": "^SELECT *.",         "kind": "MayBeSQL",         "description": "Indicates a string whose contents may be a SQL query."       }
     ]  }

Now, Pysa will treat any values flowing into a each of the following as a regular sink:

def may_render(parameter: str) -> None:    result = f"<content={parameter}>"    result = "<content={}>".format(parameter)    result = "<content%s>" % (parameter,)

As well as values flowing into each of these as a regular sink:

def build_sql_query(columns: str) -> None:    result = f"SELECT {columns} FROM users;"    result = "SELECT {} FROM users;".format(columns)    result = "SELECT %s FROM users" % (columns,)    result = "SELECT " + columns + " FROM users;"

Combined Source Rules#

Some security vulnerabilities are better modeled as multiple sources reaching a sink. For example, leaking credentials via requests.get could be modeled as user controlled data flowing into the url parameter and credentials flowing into the params parameter. These flows can be modeled by combined source rules.

Sources for combined source rules are declared as normal in taint.config. Sinks, however, need to be unique to the combined source rule and are declared inside the rule definition. The rule itself is declared in the combined_source_rules top level entry. The rule lists all the same things as a regular rule, but also ties labels to its sources:

{  "sources": [    { "name": "UserControlled" },    { "name": "Credentials" }  ],  "combined_source_rules": [    {       "name": "Credentials leaked through requests",       "sources": { "url": "UserControlled", "creds": "Credentials" },       "partial_sink": "UserControlledRequestWithCreds",       "code": 1,       "message_format": "Credentials leaked through requests"    }  ]}

Sources are declared as normal in .pysa files. Instead of specifying sinks with a TaintSink annotation, however, PartialSink annotations are used to specify where each source needs to flow for the combined source rule. These PartialSink must reference the labels that were declared in multi_sink_labels:

def requests.api.get(  url: PartialSink[UserControlledRequestWithCreds[url]],  params: PartialSink[UserControlledRequestWithCreds[creds]],  **kwargs): ...

With the above configuration, Pysa can detect cases where UserControlled flows into url and Credentials flow into params at the same time.

Prevent Inferring Models with SkipAnalysis#

In addition to the models defined in .pysa files, Pysa will infer models for functions based what sources, sinks, etc. they call in their body. The SkipAnalysis annotation can be used to prevent Pysa from inferring models, and instead force it to use only the user defined models for determining taint flow:

@SkipAnalysisdef qualifier.dont_generate_models(argument): ...

SkipAnalysis can be applied at the class level as a shorthand to prevent pysa from infering models for all functions in a class:

class skip_analysis.SkipMe(SkipAnalysis): ...

Ignoring overrides#

When a method is called on a base class, Pysa has to assume that that call could actually invoke any subclass methods that override the base class's method. For heavily overriden methods, this can lead to both performance impacts and false positives. When running Pysa, you may see messages such as this in the output:

2020-09-02 09:25:50,677 WARNING `object.__init__` has 106 overrides, this might slow down the analysis considerably.

The above message indicates that 106 subclasses of object have overridden __init__. If Pysa sees taint flowing into object.__init__, then it will treat all 106 overrides of object.__init__ as also receiving that taint.

The @SkipOverrides decorator can be applied to deal with false positives or performance issues from having too many overrides on a given function:

@SkipOverridesdef object.__init__(self): ...

This annotation will cause Pysa not to propagate taint into to and from overridden methods on subclasses, when analyzing functions that call the overriden method on the base class.

maximum_overrides_to_analyze can be added the the options block of taint.config to limit the number of overrides that Pysa will analyze:

{  "sources": [],  "sinks": [],  "features": [],  "rules": [],  "options": {    "maximum_overrides_to_analyze": 60  }}

This can speed up the analysis, but it will lead to false negatives, because Pysa will only propagate taint to or from 60 (in the case of the above example) overriden methods on subclasses. The remaining overriding methods will be ignored and treated as if they weren't actually overriding the base class method.

By default, Pysa skips overrides on some functions that are typically problematic. You can find the full list of default-skipped functions in stubs/taint/skipped_overrides.pysa

Limit the trace length for better signal and performance#

By default, Pysa will find all flows from sources to sinks matching a rule. This can lead to very long traces which are hard to understand and tend to be false positives. This also brings down the performance a lot.

Pysa provides a --maximum-trace-length <integer> command line argument which limits the length of traces that it finds. In general, this will also make Pysa faster.

This option can also be added in the taint.config as follows:

{  "sources": [],  "sinks": [],  "features": [],  "rules": [],  "options": {    "maximum_trace_length": 20  }}

Note that this is not a silver bullet and that this might hide security vulnerabilities. Use it with caution.

Limit the tito depth for better signal and performance#

Pysa infers automatically when a function propagate the taint from one argument to its return value. This is called tito, for Taint In Taint Out. In practice, infering it can be very expensive since the taint can go through an arbitrary number of hops (i.e, depth).

For instance:

def foo(x):  return xdef bar(x):  return foo(x)def baz(x):  return bar(x)

In this example, baz propagates the taint on its argument to the return value using 3 hops.

Pysa provides a --maximum-tito-depth <integer> command line argument which limints the depth of inferred propagations. In combination with the trace length limit, this usually makes Pysa faster.

This option can also be added in the taint.config as follows:

{  "sources": [],  "sinks": [],  "features": [],  "rules": [],  "options": {    "maximum_tito_depth": 20  }}

Inlining Decorators during Analysis

By default, Pysa ignores issues that arise in the bodies of decorators. For example, it misses issues like decorators logging data. In the code below, Pysa will not catch the flow from loggable_string to the sink within the decorator with_logging:

def with_logging(f: Callable[[str], None]) -> Callable[[str], None]:
  def inner(y: str) -> None:    log_to_my_sink(y)    f(y)
  return inner
@with_loggingdef foo(z: str) -> None:  print(z)

However, Pysa has the ability to inline decorators within functions before analyzing them so that it can catch such flows. This is currently an experimental feature hidden behind the --inline-decorators flag.

Prevent Inlining Decorators with SkipDecoratorWhenInlining#

Decorator inlining comes at the cost of increasing the analysis time and also increasing the lengths of traces. If you would like to prevent certain decorators from being inlined, you can mark them in your .pysa file using @SkipDecoratorWhenInlining:

# foo.pysa@SkipDecoratorWhenInliningdef foo.decorator_to_be_skipped(f): ...
# bar(x: int) -> None:  pass

This will prevent the decorator from being inlined when analyzing bar. Note that we use @SkipDecoratorWhenInlining on the decorator that is to be skipped, not the function on which the decorator is applied.

Single trace sanitizers with @SanitizeSingleTrace#

Sanitizers, as described in the Overview, are applied in both the forward (i.e source) trace and backward (i.e sink) trace.

For instance, with the given .pysa file:

@Sanitize(TaintInTaintOut[TaintSink[RemoteCodeExecution]])def shlex.quote(x): ...

And the following Python code:

import subprocessfrom shlex import quote
def quoted_input():  x = input() # source 'UserControlled'  y = quote(x)  return y
def echo(argument):'/bin/echo {argument}', shell=True) # sink 'RemoteCodeExecution'
def issue():  x = quoted_input() # source trace: input -> quoted_input -> issue  echo(x) # sink trace: issue -> echo ->

Pysa will NOT find an issue here, as expected. This is because during the propagation of the 'UserControlled' source in the forward trace, pysa remembers that it was sanitized for the sink 'RemoteCodeExecution'.

However, Pysa provides a simpler version of sanitizers, which only sanitizes in the forward trace or the backward trace:

@SanitizeSingleTrace(TaintSource)def f(): ...
@SanitizeSingleTrace(TaintSource[UserControlled])def g(): ...
@SanitizeSingleTrace(TaintSink)def h(): ...
@SanitizeSingleTrace(TaintSink[RemoteCodeExecution])def i(): ...

These sanitizers are a lot cheaper and could save analysis time. However, these might introduce false positives, so we recommend to use the default sanitizers.

Taint In Taint Out Transforms#

Taint in taint out transforms can be used to capture more precise flows.

As an example:

def read_file(path):  with open(path, "r") as f:    content =  return content

Without taint in taint transforms we can write a rule that captures a UserControlled path is read. Such a rule can be made much higher signal if we can detect that content is also ReturnedToUser. We can use taint in taint out transforms to stitch the two flows together. We mark read with a taint in taint out transform FileRead, and the rule becomes UserControlled -> FileRead -> ReturnedToUser.

To contrast with feature annotations, there are two differences:

  • The filtering is done during analysis itself, and limits the issues generated (as opposed to a post-processing step by the user)
  • Taint in taint out transforms can be used to reason about the order of events


In taint.config, one can specify transforms to define new transforms. Each transform is defined by following fields:

  • name: name of the transform, this is used when defining rules, as well as writing models
  • comment: description of the transform
{  ...  "transforms": [    {      "name": "MyTransform",      "comment": "This is my transform"    },    ...  ],  ...}

Then, one may use these transforms in rules as follows:

 {  ...  "rules": [    {      "name": ...,      "code": ...,      "sources": ["SourceA"],      "transforms": ["MyTransform1", "MyTransform2"],      "sinks": ["SinkB"],      "message_format": "[{$sources}] transformed by [${transforms}] may reach [${sinks}]"    },    ...  ],  ...}

Intuitively, one can think of the rule above as SourceA -> MyTransform1 -> MyTransform2 -> SinkB. The order is important.

Finally, in .pysa model files a taint transform can be specified using a TaintInTaintOut[Transform[...]] annotation, where the parameter is the name of the transform.

def my_function(arg: TaintInTaintOut[Transform[MyTransform]]): ...


  y = my_function(x)

If x has source taint SourceA, the taint of y is MyTransform:SourceA. This will correspond to matching SourceA -> MyTransform in a rule. Likewise, if y has sink taint SinkB, then the taint of x is MyTransorm:SinkB. This will correspond to matching MyTransform -> SinkB in a rule.

Note that a transform modifies the taint itself. Hence, if a flow passes through a transform, it will no longer match rules which do not contain the transform.

RuleX: SourceA -> SinkBRuleY: SourceA -> MyTransform -> SinkBFlow1: SourceA -> SinkBFlow2: SourceA -> MyTransform -> SinkB

Flow1 matches RuleX but not RuleY. Flow2 matches RuleY but not RuleX.

Consider the scenario where we have an additional rule:

RuleZ: SourceC -> SinkD

If transform MyTransform is applied to taint SourceC, there is no possible rule it can possibly match. As an optimization, we check for this continuously in our analysis and filter out eagerly.

Also note that the existing TaintInTaintOut annotation semantics of TITO being assumed (instead of inferred) on the argument are unchanged.